Install and Setup of Kohana 3, The

Kohana is the wildly popular PHP Framework used by many developers all over. I’ve used it numerous times in the past on some rather different projects and found it to be pretty versatile and reliable over-all. One of my largest projects received well over 100,000 unique visitors a day, and still managed to hold up exceptionally well under the stress.

This post will serve as nothing more than a guide to installing Kohana version 3.


In order to run Kohana you will need a server, but don’t worry too much as your average computer will do. I develop on windows (for now) so I typically install WAMPServer, which places Apache, MySQL, and PHP all on my box inside a live server environment so that I can develop on the domain http://localhost/ – awfully handy.

Depending on what operating system you’re using, you may not find WAMPServer to be all that helpful. There are always alternatives: MAMP and XAMPP are two popular ones.

The Classic Download, Copy and Paste Procedure

Like so many other frameworks, we’ll begin with downloading Kohana and extracting the files into our project directory. You can download Kohana 3 from the Kohana download page. At the time of this writing, the latest (stable) version is 3.0.9, which also happens to be the version I’ll use in the following examples.

Extract the contents of your download to your project directory. You may keep the standard /kohana folder that comes in the archive, or you can just pull the files themselves our and into your directory. Once you have this done though, load up your favorite browser and navigate to your project directory to begin the requirements testing.

Kohana checks environment to ensure it can run properly with present configuration.

This stage will test your environment for Kohana┬ácompatibility. Kohana will need to ensure that your server configuration allows for writable log directories, appropriate versions of PHP and so much more. This screen will give you a nice rundown of how you stack up. All green is all good, but if Kohana finds something it doesn’t like (like unwritable directories) be sure to handle it here and refresh to re-check your system.

If you require assistance setting up your server environment to allow for writable directories, or enabling extensions in the PHP library, please consider visiting serverfault, and online peer-reviewed question and answer website for server maintenance.

As indicated in the automated test, once your system is clear you may delete (or rename) the install.php file to continue the process of setting up Kohana 3.

Setting the Base URL

Some of you may have refreshed your browser only to find a aesthetically pleasing (yet heartbreaking) error on your screen. You got antsy, slow down and keep reading (we’re almost done, I promise). The next thing we need to do is update our base bath to the project on our server.

Kohana uses Apache’s mod_rewrite to beautify your url structure. Much of this logic exists within the example.htaccess file found immediately within your Kohana directory. Open this up to make our next edit.

If necessary, let’s update the following line:

# Installation directory
RewriteBase /

If your project is immediately inside your /www or /htdocs folder (your web-server directory) then you can leave this as /, however if you’ve created a project folder to house your Kohana application you need to point this to where that project is. Hint: it’s the same path that we accessed to get to the previous phase, the system check.

My project happens to be in a custom path, so I’ll update my example.htaccess file.

# Installation directory
RewriteBase /projects/demoKohana/website

When you are ready to save this file, save it as .htaccess in the same directory. It’s an odd filename, but trust me on this. This file is handled by Apache and often times contains very important rules for how requests ought to be handled. You can read more about .htaccess on the Apache website.

Now that we’ve modified the .htaccess file, our directory ought to look like this:

Basic Kohana 3 root directory appearance.
  • application (folder)
  • modules (folder)
  • system (folder)
  • .htaccess
  • build.xml
  • example.htaccess
  • index.php
  • install.php (deleted or renamed)

If this looks like your directory, you’re well on your way to finishing the setup process.

Once you’ve confirmed your directory structure is correct, we can move on to the the final touches before starting development with the Kohana 3 framework.

Updating the Bootstrap

Our next, and final, step is to update an array found within application/bootstrap.php. Within bootstrap.php, locate the following lines:

	'base_url' => '/',

Here, again, we’ll want to change the base_url value. Within a comment the Kohana developers tell us that this value represents the “path, and optionally domain, of your application.” As such, if you want to provide the domain you are more than welcome to. I will be using a path instead:

	'base_url' => '/projects/demoKohana/website',

Save, and exit.

At this point, if all went as it should, you should be able to refresh your project directory and find one of the most glorious messages developers have enjoyed since 1974.

To the Controller!

By default, Kohana will run the index action of the default Welcome controller. The default controller and action are set within the bootstrap.php file, located just inside the applications folder. Locate the following lines:

Route::set('default', '(<controller>(/<action>(/<id>)))')
		'controller' => 'welcome',
		'action'     => 'index',

If you would like to change the controller and/or action, you may do so here. Instead of changing the present values, I’m going to leave them as they are and simply take a look at the welcome controller. You can find the welcome controller source located inside application/classes/controllers under the filename welcome.php:

<?php defined('SYSPATH') or die('No direct script access.');

class Controller_Welcome extends Controller {

	public function action_index()
		$this->request->response = 'hello, world!';

} // End Welcome

You can see from this code that all the action_index() method does is send the ‘hello, world!’ message directly to the response. No views are being loaded, so we’ll go ahead and load a view now. We’ll start by creating a new file at application/views/welcome.php and placing within it the text “This is my view.” Next, back in our controller we will make the following change to the action_index method body:

//$this->request->response = 'hello, world!';
$this->request->response = View::factory( 'welcome' );

Here we are loading the welcome view into the response. This now allows us to make changes to our applications/views/welcome.php file rather than modifying the output within the controller itself.

Next up, Using Views in Kohana 3.